The Hong Kong legal profession is also divided into two branches: Barristers and Solicitors. In the Netherlands, there used to be a semi-separate legal profession, comprising lawyer and prosecutor, the latter being somewhat similar to the legal profession. Under this system, lawyers had the right to legally represent their clients, but could only bring an action in the court with which they were registered. Cases within the jurisdiction of another court must be filed by a prosecutor registered with that court, often in practice by another lawyer who performs both functions. Questions were raised about the necessity of separation, as its main purpose – maintaining the quality of the legal profession and complying with the rules and customs of local courts – had become obsolete. For this reason, the signing authority was abolished as an independent profession and its functions merged with the legal profession in 2008.  Currently, lawyers can file cases in any court, regardless of where they are registered. The only notable exception is in civil cases before the Supreme Court, which must be handled by lawyers registered with the Supreme Court, giving him the title of “lawyer at the Supreme Court”.  There are two main types of legal professions in Poland: lawyer and legal adviser. Both are regulated and these professions are reserved for individuals who have obtained a five-year law degree, have at least three years of experience and have passed five difficult national examinations (civil, criminal, corporate, administrative and professional ethics) or have a doctorate in law. Before 2015, the only difference was that in all cases, lawyers had the right to represent their clients in court and legal advisors could not represent clients in criminal matters in court. Currently, legal counsel can also represent clients in criminal matters, so the differences between these professions are currently only historical. In Canada (except Quebec), the legal and legal professions have merged, and many lawyers refer to themselves by both names, even though they do not practise both.
 In colloquial language within the Canadian legal profession, lawyers often refer to themselves as “litigators” (or “lawyers”) or “lawyers”, depending on the nature of their legal practice, although some may in fact serve as both litigators and lawyers. However, “litigators” generally perform all the contentious functions traditionally performed by barristers and solicitors; On the other hand, those who call themselves solicitors would generally limit themselves to legal work that does not involve practice before the courts (not even in a preparatory way as that carried out by lawyers in England), although some may practise before magistrates. As is often the case in many other Commonwealth jurisdictions such as Australia, Canadian litigators are “dressed,” but without a wig, when appearing before “higher court” courts. All law graduates from Canadian law schools and holders of NCA certificates of qualification (internationally educated lawyers or graduates of other law schools in common law jurisdictions outside Canada) of the Federation of Law Societies of Canada may apply for admission to the relevant provincial regulatory body (Law Society) (note here that Canadian provinces are technically considered different jurisdictions). The prerequisites for admission as a member of a bar association are obtaining a Canadian law degree (or passing examinations to recognize a foreign common law degree), one year as a student under the supervision of a qualified lawyer, and successful completion of the bar examinations required by the province in which the student has applied for licensure. Once these requirements are met, the articling student may be “called to the bar” after the review if the application and “good character” review relate to matters where the articling student is presented to the court at an appeal ceremony. The applicant then becomes a member of the Bar as a lawyer. The risk increases if the subject matter of the appraisal is closely aligned with the legal issue to be assessed, as in the case of questions relating to the valuation of real estate.